Interactive information visualization and visual analytics methods will bring profound changes to personal health programs, clinical healthcare delivery, and public health policy making. This article describes the state of the art within these three domains and gives examples of current efforts that hint at the remarkable transformations that are possible. Then it offers seven challenges for information visualization and visual analytics researchers. The arguments and challenges are aligned with the National Institutes of Health’s roadmap for Predictive, Preemptive, Personalized, and Participative medicine. Many technologies need substantial advances to produce reliable, effective, safe, and validated systems, but the potential societal benefits are enormous.