A 70-year-old simmering debate has erupted into vigorous battles over the most effective ways to conduct research. Well-established beliefs are being forcefully challenged by advocates of new research models. While there can be no final resolution to this battle, this paper offers the Twin-Win Model to guide teams of researchers, academic leaders, business managers, and government funding policymakers. The Twin-Win Model favors a problem-oriented approach to research, which encourages formation of teams to pursue the dual goals of breakthrough theories in published papers and validated solutions that are ready for widespread dissemination. The raised expectations of simultaneously pursuing foundational discoveries and powerful innovations are a step beyond traditional approaches that advocate basic research first. Evidence from citation analysis and researcher interviews suggests that simultaneous pursuit of both goals raises the chance of twin-win success.