Norman, K.
June 1990
Current Psychology: Research & Reviews, Summer 90, vol. 9, 2, 141-161. Also Sparks of Innovation in Human-Computer Interaction, Shneiderman, B., Ed., Ablex (June 1993) 133-151.
The introduction of hypermedia into the classroom presents both an opportunity to expand the power of teaching through electronic facilitation of the media and a challange to redesign the classroom and instructional environment to exploit the enhanced fe atures of hypermedia. This paper briefly surveys the current state of computers in the classroom and then argues that a more integrated approach is required. To this end, the concept of an electronic teaching theater is proposed which takes advantage of hypermedia and collaborative work environments. The aim of the electronic teaching theater is not to totally redesign the classroom and instructional interaction, but rather to facilitate it using well understood metaphores to lay out the dynamics of cl assroom interaction on the electronic media and to use the results from research in human/computer to design the interface. To facilitate the application of hypermedia, a model of instructional interaction among tyhe student, the instructios, the course material, and the products of instruction is presented. A number of component models pertaining to course preparation, lectures, note taking, and other instructional activities are then discussed that should prove useful in designing the electronic class room. The origin of these models is the mental representation of the interaction as perceived by the teacher and the student. The idea is to start with such models as a base metaphor, to intstantiate the metaphors in the electronic classroom, and then t o explore innovations in the technology that go beyond the strict application of the metaphor.
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